Thoughts on today’s conviction of Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea for the mass murder in Pol Pot’s Cambodia
Excerpts from the unpublished book Sympathy for the Devil: A Journalists Memoir from Inside Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge. To support the publication of the book or to pre-order a copy see links on this website or nate-thayer.com)
By Nate Thayer
August 7, 2014
Khmer Rouge leaders Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea were convicted of mass murder today.
I respected Nuon Chea—no doubt an unrepentant mass murderer– who spent his life trying to make Cambodia a better place for its long suffering people. In the process, Nuon Chea had more blood on his hands than any single Cambodian, including Pol Pot.
And I detested Khieu Samphan—who I have met well over 40 times over several decades in jungles and cities across several continents.
Nuon Chea frightened me. I was the first foreigner he met after 50 years as a leader of the Cambodian revolution. He was effectively under arrest when I had lunch with him. He seethed hatred and self-confidence. “These are matters for history. You can write anything you want after I die,” he told me.
And I once threw up on Khieu Samphan, although it wasn’t a reaction to his politics. I had a malaria attack during an interview. He was and is an unrepentant coward.
These two people were convicted of crimes against humanity in Cambodia today.
Today will effectively conclude the so-called pursuit of justice for the millions whose lives were extinguished or ruined by the murderous regime of Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge.
It is an unmitigated travesty–an embarrassment, and cover up of true justice that the world community are parcel to and have legitimized.
The Khmer Rouge Prime Minister Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, the #2 in the standing committee of the communist party of Democratic Kampuchea, have been found guilty of Crimes against Humanity in a farcical trial designed to avoid justice for those who are responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million Cambodian’s under Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge between April 17, 1975 and January 7, 1979–the three years, eight months and 20 days they were in power.
The judicial process, sanctioned and paid for by the UN and the world community, is perhaps more of a profound crime than the crimes against humanity these guilty as sin two war criminals committed themselves, because it puts the stamp of approval of allowing political interference to decide who will—and more importantly, will not– face justice for their culpability in mass murder.
It is an outrage and a stain on the concept of impartial international justice.
The dirty little secret is the ex-Khmer Rouge who were directly responsible for the mass murder of millions of their compatriots remain in power and control of the country today.
It is a mistaken and simplistic premise to assume that any of Cambodia’s mainstream political factions are “anti-Khmer Rouge.”
The fact is that Cambodia’s current government is the Khmer Rouge.
That fact is both incontrovertible and uncomfortable and the truth.
What happened to rest of the Khmer Rouge?
They are back in power.
The current Prime Minister, Foreign Minister, Defence Minister, Finance Minister, Interior Minister, numerous other ministers, thousands of generals and officers in the military and security services, and the majority of provincial governors, heads of districts, sub districts, and villages are former Khmer Rouge officials.
The chief “UN” judge, Nil Nonn, said the court found that there had been “a widespread and systematic attack against the civilian population of Cambodia” and that the two former leaders were part of a “joint criminal enterprise” that bore responsibility. They were convicted of murder and extermination, among other crimes.
The judgments against Nuon Chea, 88, and Khieu Samphan, 83, were the first to be handed down against the Khmer Rouge leadership, although comrade Duch, a mid-level technician of the killing machine who presided over a death prison for the regime in Phnom Penh, was convicted in 2010.
The dirty little secret that all Cambodians know Pol Pot fits far too comfortably within the current mainstream Cambodian political culture.
What is a crime is that these convictions will suffice as justice for the dead and those who were responsible for their deaths.
There is irrefutable evidence that renders dozens of senior former Khmer Rouge officials, many who are now serving members in the current government of Cambodia, indictable for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and mass murder during their time serving Pol Pot in the late 1970’s.
The truth is that it is the Cambodian political culture which should be indicted.
Sixteen years ago this week, I witnessed the jungle trial of Pol Pot, conducted by the Khmer Rouge, in the malarial infested forests of Northern Cambodia.
It was a farce. But no more of a farce than the United Nations conducted war crimes tribunal in Phnom Penh that convicted Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan today.
The similarities are that the two trials picked and chose who was politically acceptable to be brought to justice.
In 1997, it was Pol Pot.
In 2014, it is Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan.
The trial of Pol Pot was held on a mountain top under an aluminum roof where car batteries were hooked up to microphones.
The UN trial was held in a multi-million dollar building in Phnom Penh where there were so called judges and prosecutors and the pomp of rule of law.
Both the conclusion of UN trial and the Khmer Rouge held jungle tribunal were both a predetermined and politically manipulated fait accompli.
During the July 1997 trial of Pol Pot in the jungles of Anlong Veng in northern Cambodia, Bang Men, around 50, hobbled up on his amputated leg and one crutch in front of the gathered crowd.
Pol Pot was only a few feet away, cheeks shaking trying to maintain his composure.
Bang Men introduced himself as “a representative of the people.”
He spoke with sincerity and passion, his voice raised at the crude podium on the dirt jungle floor, into the microphone hooked up to a car battery:
“The people and masses of Anlong Veng, tens of thousands of people, have abandoned their land, homes, their parents, siblings, children, and grandchildren for close to 20 years, with the aim of solving the problem of the nation, the race….not thinking of the danger, their lives…. But finally, the result was not in keeping with most of our wishes, our intentions. We have been separated and lost tens of thousands, millions…Pol Pot continually had us study about the view, the stance, fighting, enduring to fight, the stance becoming even stronger, the situation becoming ever more difficult. They saw enemies everywhere, saw them as rotten flesh, swollen flesh, enemies surrounding them, enemies in front, enemies behind, enemies to the north, enemies to the south, enemies to the west, enemies to the east, enemies in all eight directions, enemies coming from all nine directions, around them, closing in, with no place to breathe…Pol Pot wanted to further strengthen our stance. Strengthen over and over and over, including measures to successfully kill and purge our own ranks, including strugglers in the movement of the same rank…looking backward, Cambodia was dissolving into nothing…fighting continually and Cambodia steadily dissolving.”
What is the difference between that jungle trial and the UN trial held in Phnom Penh?
The remarkable longevity of the political power wielded by Pol Pot, which actually saw a surge in popular support in the 1980’s after they inflicted genocide while in power, provides an essential, if very dark, prism necessary to view and understand the sad and distasteful realities of the Cambodian political culture that preceded and succeeded the Khmer Rouge.
In a properly organized country, Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge would have utterly collapsed under the weight of its own record immediately after the three years in power in which their policies left millions dead and those who, in many ways, were unlucky enough to survive deeply psychically traumatized.
The tenacity of the Khmer Rouge to remain a force with the mainstream legitimacy to be the dominant political kingmaker two decades after their orgy of repression and brutality brought the entire country to its knees is nothing other than a wholesale indictment of the failures of the entire Cambodian political culture.
It would be a stretch to say that Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea were friends of mine, but I knew them as well as any foreigner did, having spent many dozens of days over many years with both.
I spent my youth trying to access their leadership to answer the question: “Why did you kill so many good and normal and decent people and are you sorry?”
Thirty years after the Khmer Rouge killed 1.8 million people during their unspeakable three years, eight months and 30 days in power–including the perpetrators of crimes against humanity, war crimes, mass murder, torture and slave labor as official state policy, and, arguably, genocide–Today in 2014 is the final verdict of justice for those millions dead and the millions of others who, in many ways, have suffered a worse fate unfortunate enough to survive, shattered and traumatized, and their entire culture brought to its knees.
The judicial process sanctioned and paid for by the UN and the world community, is as much of crime as the murders themselves. It is an outrage and a stain on the concept of international justice.
It is the current central government of ex Khmer Rouge, firmly controlled by the former Khmer Rouge military officer, current Prime Minister Hun Sen, who for the more than 30 years since Pol Pot was overthrown in an internecine family feud, has demanded his citizen subjects remain obsequious under his jack boot of “Pol Pot Lite” rule.
13 years ago, Hun Sen agreed to an international tribunal to bring to justice those responsible for the mass murder perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge. The problem was that those people included his own government.
After years of bullying and intimidation, five former Khmer Rouge leaders were deemed politically dispensable to be charged by the United Nations court.
These were leng Sary, the foreign minister under the Khmer Rouge, who died last year.
His wife, Ieng Thirith, who was found to be mentally incompetent to stand trial in 2012.
The former titular Kmer Rouge head of state Khieu Samphan, who was convicted today
And the number two in the standing committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, Nuon Chea–Pol Pot’s ideological architect.
In 2010, Prime Minister Hun Sen told UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon that he would not allow the tribunal to prosecute anyone beyond those named in Case 002, which concluded today.
Two international judges have stepped down since the tribunal began – Laurent Kasper-Ansermet in 2012 and Siegfried Blunk in 2011. Both cited government interference as their reasons for leaving. In addition, dozens of professional investigators have resigned in objection and disgust at the political interference which prevented them from doing their jobs.
For context, I knew Pol Pot.
And I knew Khmer Rouge Prime Minister Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, the #2 in the standing committee of the communist party of Democratic Kampuchea, both of whom were convicted and sentenced to spend the rest of their lives in prison today.
I knew Kanh Keu Euv—better known as Duch–the administrator of S-21—better known as Tuol Sleng—the security apparatus that was responsible for directly killing more than 16,000 political enemies as defined by the Communist Party of Kampuchea. He is the only one, after nearly $300 million dollars spent to date—who had been convicted as culpable for the deaths and destruction that took place during the Khmer Rouge reign, until today’s trial verdict.
And I knew Ta Mok, the Khmer Rouge military commander who died in prison in the early 2000’s.
I also knew Ieng Sary, Pol Pot’s brother-in-law and the Khmer Rouge foreign minister, who was on trial until he died last year.
And I knew his wife, Ieng Thirith. She was also on trial until she was deemed mentally incompetent to stand trial.
These are the five people who were indicted and charged for the crimes of Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge.
After more than $200 million spent by the UN, one has been convicted until today. Today Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea were also convicted. Ieng Sary died in prison. And his wife, Ieng Thirit, has been determined mentally incompetent to stand trial.
I interviewed and spent time with every one of them, each one on several occasions and independent of each other, over a period of 20 plus years.
I believe I am the only outsider to have done so.
They were not my friends, but I respected them as much as I respect the current leaders of today’s Cambodia.
Khieu Samphan was born in the eastern province of Svay Rieng and educated in Paris, receiving a Doctorate of Economics. He returned to Cambodia to be elected to the National Assembly, and was widely idolized for his reputation as incorruptible while in parliament under the regime of Norodom Sihanouk. He served briefly as Sihanouk’s minister of commerce, before fleeing to the jungle in 1967 after public threats by Sihanouk. While serving as the public face of the Khmer Rouge, he was never a member of the CPK most powerful body, the Standing Committee. He never revealed his affiliation with the CPK.
Today was a victory for the people equally as responsible for the destruction of Cambodian society as those convicted in court.
And it is a travesty and cover up of true justice that the world community should be embarrassed they are parcel and party to and funded and legitimized this travesty of justice.
What is a crime is that these convictions will suffice as justice for the dead and those who were responsible for their deaths.
I have met and interviewed Khieu Samphan on dozens of occasions. I detest him. But he is a minion of the real perpetrators of mass murder. I have seen no evidence he was directly responsible for a single murder.
In a February 1998 meeting in the jungles of then Khmer Rouge controlled Anlong Veng, I sat at a roundtable luncheon over fresh fish and warm soda in Ta Mok’s house.
The lunch guests hosted for three hours by Ta Mok included Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan, and several other senior Khmer Rouge cadres. I was allowed to film and record the entire event. Mok had by then had captured Pol Pot and controlled the army and therefore the power. Pol Pot was nearby, held under house arrest.
Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan hated Ta Mok with a passion, considering him a competent military commander but wholly ignorant of political theory and a loud and course peasant soldier. The truth is, their loyalty was still with Pol Pot.
Today, the Cambodian government and world community can celebrate that their charade of bringing justice to those responsible will never happen and can finally dispense with this political nuisance of having the harsh glare of public scrutiny focused on their ugly and very much alive political culture.
Thirty years after the Khmer Rouge did what they did during their unspeakable three years, eight months and 30 days in power–committed crimes against humanity, war crimes, mass murder, torture and slave labor as official state policy, and, arguably genocide–this is the current state of justice for those millions dead and those, in many ways, who have suffered a worse fate and were unfortunate enough to survive, shattered and traumatized, their entire culture brought to its knees where the ex Khmer Rouge who control the country today demand they remain.
Of the five predetermined and given political permission to be charged as culpable of these crimes, this is the current status of justice dispensed: One mid-level party technician who carried out the political orders to execute 16,000 men women and children, after being tortured and interrogated, has been found guilty. One octogenarian woman had charges dismissed as she was determined to be senile. Two senior officials, both in their 80′s have been found guilty after ten years and $300 million dollars paid by the properly organized world to fund this monument to a mockery of justice run by the United Nations but controlled by ex-Khmer Rouge now running the current government.
Their indictment for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity came 30 years after they committed them, which was followed by 16 years of being funded armed and diplomatically supported by the world community to rebuild them as a political power, then pardoned for all crimes by Hun Sen, and appointed to senior government positions where they returned to the legitimacy of mainstream Cambodia political culture by the current dictator, Hun Sen, who himself served the defendants, and Pol Pot, loyally as an officer in the Khmer Rouge army when they did what they did.
I knew Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea quite well, and met and dined with and interviewed them numerous times over the years. I even slept in their houses. They are guilty as sin of being mass murderers. But they seemed, in all honesty, to me probably on the more reasonable spectrum of the batch of current leaders in Cambodia today.
The real scandal is the farcical mockery of justice for the victims of what happened sanctioned, paid for, and using the credibility of the properly organized world that its only real consequence is the new modern day model of a Stalinist era political show trial, the UN War Crimes Trial known as the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.
A Stalinist show trial was structured where a political judgment was already pre-concluded for those deemed politically acceptable to be dispensed with, but uses the farce of a judge, a defense lawyer, a prosecutor, and pre-selected approved witnesses to give the process an insulting veneer of judicial legitimacy, but the entire process is politically controlled and the conclusion is a fait accompli. Only those witnesses, or defendants or evidence that would not complicate the actual process of presenting evidence without political interference before the predetermined conviction can be dispensed with was allowed. There was no remote semblance of an independent judicial process, driven by first collecting evidence, which if sufficient results in indictment, and then that evidence weighed impartially and a judgment reached.
This is as opposed to the Maoist style “People’s Tribunals”, which shared a politically predetermined conclusion controlling the judicial procedure, but dispensed with the fatuous irrelevancies of judges and lawyers and witnesses etc. and just denounced the already condemned before they did away with them and shot them with a bullet to the head in the public square a few hours after the ceremony took to complete from start to finish.
Both procedures have, obviously, no connection with the legitimacy of an independent judiciary trying to present facts of interest to the common good, but at least the Chinese model didn’t try to dupe people they were doing otherwise, like the United Nations and world community are today in cahoots with the ex-Khmer Rouge thugs who run the current Cambodian government.
Which raises the issue of why?
The dirty little secret is that Khmer Rouge weren’t communists. Just like the current thugs in power under Hun Sen are not communists.
They are Cambodian.
In the heart of far too many Cambodian’s, there lurks a Khmer Rouge in varying degrees of dormancy. And while the Khmer Rouge philosophy was on the extreme end of mainstream Cambodian political culture, it fit then and fits now quite comfortably into today’s Cambodian political culture, which was unsuccessfully rehabilitated by the UN court to give it legitimacy and to run free back to administer Cambodian society.
Who were the Khmer Rouge?
Although theoretically a communist party, the personal statements in multiple interviews I conducted with all the Khmer Rouge top leaders who remained alive after 1996 (including the five charged and the two alive who were convicted today), suggest the Khmer Rouge would be more accurately characterized as ultra-nationalists and xenophobic racists (with many similarities to fascism) intent on creating their own version of organized power deeply rooted in Khmer political culture and history based on no external models.
Exactly like their ex-Khmer Rouge successors who control the country today.
Of the 18 members of the central committee of the communist party that took power in 1975, only four spoke a foreign language. Since neither Mao, Lenin, Stalin, Marx, or Engels were ever translated into the Khmer language, and therefore none of the member of the Cambodian communist party could have been students of international communism, it is hard to argue that the unspeakable failure and suffering that occurred under the Khmer Rouge was a result of communist—or, for that matter, any outside–ideology.
The Khmer Rouge movement was, and is, in essence very Khmer.
It’s demand for obsequies loyalty to a single entity; its refusal to allow for even internal debate or opposition political thought or organization; its fixation on being a victim of foreign designs or trickery; its racial hatred towards non-Khmer; its unspoken inferiority complex to that of its more properly organized neighbors; its use of harsh violence as a central tool of consolidating and maintaining power; and its belief that it had only to unleash its unique abilities superior to other nations to achieve a superior society than the world had previously known, were all central psychological and concrete ingredients of the feudal monarchies and regimes which had preceded the Khmer Rouge for centuries. This are all tenets in the tradition of their predecessors but allows the Khmer Rouge and their successors, with their Stalinist power structure, to metastasize like an inoperable cancer throughout the body politic.
Within three years of seizing power in 1975, 18 of the 22 members of the central committee of the Party had been executed or named as targets for execution.
The irony is that, the Khmer Rouge so weakened the Cambodian nation and provoked its neighbors, that it guaranteed the requirement of its delusional prophecy come true–a foreign invasion by Vietnam, not to swallow and eliminate the “Khmer Nation, Race, and People”, as they believed, but to save the very nation and race from self-extermination by the Khmer’s themselves.
The Khmer Rouge sought the elimination of any vestiges of recent Cambodian political, social, and economic society. They refused assistance, advice, and even diplomatic relations with most every other nation. They demanded absolute obsequiousness to their policies from the citizenry, attempted to create an agrarian utopia, through “self-reliance” based on emptying of the population from urban areas, demanded anti-intellectualism as state policy and demonized all things foreign—particularly Vietnam–as irredeemable historical enemies intent on conquering Cambodia and eliminating it as a sovereign nation.
The families of the entire population were separated, their children taken to live separately in labor brigades in an attempt to destroy traditional loyalties of families (a truism central to virtually all political organizations worldwide in history) to be replaced by supine and unmitigated allegiance to the party. There was a near total renunciation of foreign trade, foreign expertise, or foreign technology. There was a radical sealing of the borders and all access of information to and from the outside was halted. Their largest manufacturing plant recycled old rubber vehicle tires to make shoes.
Perhaps their primary focus was an impossible to exaggerate paranoia of enemies everywhere, both “internal” from within their own ranks and the external designs of all foreigners as enemies—with a particular focus on Vietnam—who, the Khmer Rouge leadership were convinced, were poised and aggressively intent on conquering and eliminating Cambodia as a nation and the Khmer as a race. As an example, it was central party belief that there was a vast conspiracy by Vietnam, the U.S., and the Soviet Union operating in coalition colluding together and carried out by their Khmer agents who simultaneously were taking order from their coalition of KGB, CIA, and Vietnamese masters. Tens of thousands were arrested under those charges, and tortured until they confessed they were true, then executed.
In the process of implementation of these policies they combined the failures of Cambodia’s political culture–of which they vowed to eliminate and instead mimicked and exacerbated–with delusional, absurd, ill-planned and technically impossible utopian fantasies of what they deemed the “Super Great Leap Forward” in an economic strategy implemented in 1977. This was a direct reference to being more capable than China itself (in its Great Leap Forward), the Khmer Rouge’s main benefactor, and was designed to prove their superior talents and abilities demonstrating they were racially, culturally, and as a nation-state more advanced than any other economic model in world history, not just rejecting any foreign model but unsupervised by any Cambodian cadre with foreign training.
They forced compliance to these policies with rule through the centrally directed harsh use of violence and forced implantation of delusional central agricultural, economic, and social policies. They relied on manual labor, and arrested and executed cadre who suggested that mechanized machines such as tractors would be a superior method than the forced labor of a starving population.
When impossible production quotas weren’t met, the KR cadres in the area were deemed as foreign agents intentionally sabotaging the Cambodian nation. These combined to create a recipe destined for disaster.
They allowed no internal debate for their policies contributing to the astonishing failures of central policy as a whole, utter collapse of any normal government functions, extraordinary suffering of the population, a petrified and robotic Party rank and file, and finally a war they provoked which ended in the loss of their country to Vietnamese occupation. These dominant features underlined their tenure in power.
These themes are all consistent with the Khmer Rouge absolute policy of what they called “self-reliance-self-mastery” and their belief that they were capable of alone creating an agrarian utopia that harked back to their glorious Angkorean past.
Pol Pot’s “Super Great Leap Forward” was touted as proof that Cambodia could make achievements superior to that of even China, and reflected both the fact they were far from subservient minions of Beijing and a psychological penchant for vengeance against all things foreign which, they believed, had stripped them of their cultural and racial dignity.
The fact that Cambodia had been a failed state in the 800 years since the demise of the Angkor empire created an inferiority complex of which they were determined to prove they were victims of foreign plots, or a reflection of the rapacious, corrupt, and incompetent rulers that preceded them. In the end, they proved themselves even more incompetent and inhumane than their political enemies. Those who resisted or questioned their impossible vision for a utopia unique in history were often killed with the sincere belief they were enemies of the very Cambodian race, people, and nation.
The top Khmer Rouge leaders may have been convicted today and some others dead, but those who share this extreme national inferiority complex are back in power. They may have abandoned proving themselves correct as a temporary tactical decision, but the essential strategy to exact vengeance on those they maintain a deeply psychology embedded seething hatred for, and are determined to one day exact vengeance upon to prove they are correct, remains alive.
The convictions of Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea today is just a footnote in the 30 years of avoiding a proper judicial process to avoid having the harsh glare of public scrutiny and self-examination that would reveal the dark secret that not five men, but the entire political culture requires it be indicted and examined for anything to fundamentally change.
If the Cambodians in political power don’t want to do so, at least the world community shouldn’t abet and lend credibility to such a process, which it has by funding and sanctioning the current war crimes court which released a verdict today that somehow is supposed to create closure or justice for the 2 million dead Cambodians and those who survived the reign of indisputable international criminals who led it, and those who remain in power today who justify it..
Ta Mok began to recite the names and ranks of the Party leaders who had been executed. “ That is right, a (“a” is a pejorative Khmer term meaning ”the contemptible’) Nhim was what number? A-Chong was what number?”, referring to their ranks in the Standing Committee of the CPK. “ A-Phong was what number? Why do I want to count them all? Because I want to relate clearly that all of them were what?” Ta Mok was naming top party leaders arrested, tortured, and executed at Tuol Sleng. “ From number One Pol Pot to all of those I mentioned, some of them were Yuon ( a derogatory term for Vietnamese). Was Pol Pot Yuon or not? I don’t know, it is not clear. But So Phim is clear. He was Yuon. From the east. He was Yuon through and through, a pure Yuon. Chong was Yuon. He was a person of the Yuon.”
Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea were seething sitting to my right with Ta Mok on my left. Their loyalties were still with Pol Pot and they despised Ta Mok. They looked like they were about to explode. Revealing Party secrets is an offensive that had always meant certain death, and to do so in front of an American was unfathomable to them. I knew they had already concluded I was a CIA agent, but considered me a useful back channel.
Cor Bun Heng, a young intellectual, asked “Chong was from where?”
Ta Mok replied: “Koh Kong. Or CIA. It is the same.”
Mok then laughed and pointed his finger at me. “CIA! Have you heard of them?” while laughing menacingly, grinning broadly and gazing his narrow eyes locked on mine, laughing louder and more. I had been told earlier by Khmer Rouge confidantes that Mok was convinced I was an agent of the CIA. I said nothing. “So within the leadership, there were Yuon and CIA. And there were Americans. Have you heard of them?”, he asked me again, perhaps trying to be both funny and menacing.
Mok laughed again. “ A-Thuch, what was his original name?” laughing and cackling, clearly enjoying making the whole table very uncomfortable for very different reasons.
Khieu Samphan, who was decidedly not laughing and decidedly annoyed, answered: “Koy Thuon.”
“Koy Thuon was an American,” Mok declared.” This is what I want to explain to you. “Mok continued. “It was like this. It was a mess. And it is this that causes the talk of two million or three million killed. Because internally things weren’t good, they carried on killings. The Yuon group wanted to kill the American group. The American group wanted to kill the Yuon group and kill the Khmers. Internally, there were these three, three parties: The American party, the Yuon party, and the Khmer party. I want to tell you this just honestly, straightforwardly.”
It was the first time Nuon Chea had ever granted an interview in the 50 years since he joined the revolution. And he wasn’t happy. Mok presided and was periodically sarcastic, animated, and demeaning towards his senior colleagues, whose expressions seethed at Mok’s flippant and derogatory remarks.
Mok put down Khieu Samphan, who was seated next to him, saying: “Pol Pot, it is like the Americans say about Khieu Samphan, that he is only a figurehead. Because where are the forces? Who is Cambodia? I am not saying this to boast. Ask the Army. Pol Pot had only himself. The forces were the Southwest,” he said referring to the zone he ruled as military commander during the Khmer Rouge years in power.
I asked Nuon Chea about the alleged coup attempts against Pol Pot and Nuon Chea between 1975 and 1979. “ During the three years holding power, it was the Yuon and the henchmen of the Yuon, “ Nuon Chea replied through clenched teeth.
“What happened?” I asked.
“This is a historical matter of long past, long ago. There were assassination attempts, there were attempts to poison, from what I could gather,” Nuon Chea replied. “But most of it, some places, it is hard for me to recall. I don’t know what Ta would say,” he continued trying to avoid an answer. “ This I am telling you frankly,” Nuon says. “They accuse us.”
Ta Mok then interrupts, offering specific and never before revealed details to the extreme consternation of Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan. “Okay, I’d like to tell you. This matter isn’t something that is clear and transparent, it is very difficult, because internally who was it who was in charge? Who was responsible? It was Pol pot who was responsible. There wasn’t anyone else who was number one but Pol Pot. Pol Pot was number One.”
Then Mok turns to Nuon Chea, smirks, his eyes twinkling and his lips pursed in a mixture of menace and mockery, and says ”Brother, you were number two, right?’
Nuon Chea glares, pauses, and answers curtly, “Yes.”
“Yes, you were number two,” Mok repeats, “ Ieng Sary was number three. So Phim was number four. And Ta Mok was only number five. And A-Nhim was what number?” Mok asks Nuon Chea, in a clear attempt to goad and implicate him.
“I don’t know what number, Ta,’ Nuon Chea says.
“It is the number two individual who knows the most,” Mok continued, laughing and mocking Nuon Chea,” But I didn’t understand much. I just looked from the outside. I observed. I just want to express that opinion.”
Although popularly labeled as Communists, evidence from previously unpublished interviews with all the top leadership of the Khmer Rouge show the Khmer Rouge movement and its murderous policies was founded on an amalgam of ideologies and homegrown political theory uniquely Cambodian.
The handful of core leaders who comprised the all-powerful apparatus of the Standing Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea came from disparate backgrounds, widely divergent political influences, and training, or absence of training, that clearly suggest a CPK structure of organized power based on no external models. Their policies and tactics drew firmly from the mainstream of their Cambodian historical and contemporary political predecessors with influences from anti-colonialist movements, extreme nationalism, previous political rulers who assumed the role of all powerful God Kings, and, almost tangentially, various non-Cambodian communist parties in Europe and Asia in the 1940′s and 1950′s.
In fact it is more accurate that they had no single central organization or ideology when they seized power, but rather were dominated by a unique amalgam of loosely allied regional fiefdoms with little uniform central ideology, coordination or control. In effect, in April 1975, six separate armies, long void of a unified command leadership converged on Phnom Penh, simultaneously overthrowing the U.S. installed Lon Nol government. These loosely coordinated regional armed Khmer Rouge factions then struggled against each other for dominance within the framework of the CPK to assert influence and control.
Once in titular power, there was a stark absence of predetermined strategy or national leadership that implemented what evolved into an orgy of internal power struggles and shocking comfort level with employing tactics of crimes against humanity as routine policy, and a bumbling, delusional, ill prepared and wholly unskilled and incapable cadre of government leaders and technicians that was predestined to implode in disaster, surrendering in defeat to their own incompetence and failed policies after three years, eight months and 20 days in power.
It is useful to introduce a historical overview of the Khmer Rouge movement and its leadership prior to them seizing power on April 17, 1975.
Cambodia in the 1960’s offered few conditions that traditionally provided fuel to ignite and sustain a communist movement. It had virtually no industrial base or manufacturing sector from which to recruit a working class base of an exploited labor force by those who owned the means of production. Almost all its peasants—85% of the population—owned their own land, eliminating the opportunity to recruit popular support based on the exploitation of tenant farmers by a landlord class. The country was rich in natural resources, with abundant rice crops and some of the most productive fishing waterways in the world. It was a leading exporter of rice until after the war that engulfed the country in 1970. The population was very small compared to the productive land mass and there was virtually no malnutrition or starvation. Cambodia was at peace, despite being surrounded by the regional Indochinese wars that raged on all its borders. Despite its many failings, throughout the mid-20th century, the Cambodian government under royal control, led by Norodom Sihanouk, maintained delicate political neutrality, deftly juggling outside pressures of alliances during the superpower struggles that rendered much of the world allied with one of the three great powers of the era. As a result there were no significant Cambodian proxy armies fighting for the power interests of foreign nations. Importantly, Cambodia was largely ethnically and religiously homogeneous, precluding a racial or religious pretext to foment resentment or strife.
The conditions for revolution were not abundant. The Khmer Rouge–formally known as the Communist Party of Kampuchea–remained an infinitesimal and marginal organization with less than 5000 members until 1970.
While a number of anti-colonialist movements and nationalist armed groups flourished in the 1940’s and 50’s, the signing of the French granting independence to Cambodia in 1953 and the subsequent Geneva accords in 1954, spelled the demise of virtually all the armed underground movements in Cambodia. The Cambodian branch of the Indochinese Communist Party—entirely controlled by the Vietnamese—withdrew their entire ethnic Khmer cadre to Hanoi in 1954. The anti-colonialist Khmer Issarak party evaporated. The leftist Pracheochon above ground political party and the anti-Sihanouk Democratic Party were neutralized. While leftist sentiments lingered and Sihanouk’s autocratic rule kept alive a movement seeking more democratic rule, it was largely marginalized by his heavy handed tactics.
So to what does one attribute the rise of the ultra-radical Communist party of Kampuchea that seized power in 1975 to, leaving millions of bones stacking the killing fields that testified to the Khmer Rouge unprecedented political experiment which ended with the military conquest of Cambodia by Vietnam that brought a halt to the CPK’s 3 years and 8 months in power? What was the genus of its ideology or origins in political theory that allowed them to burgeon and drove the implementation of its disastrous rule?
On September 30, 1960 a group of 10-15 men gathered at a secret meeting in the Phnom Penh railroad station for the first party Congress and formed the Communist Party of Kampuchea. For three days and nights they hammered out and approved a party line and statutes. A Central Committee was chosen with Tou Samouth as Party Secretary, Nuon Chea as Deputy Party Secretary, Saloth Sar, alias Pol Pot, as member, Ma Mong as member, Ieng Sary as member, Chong as member, and Kaev Meas as member. The more powerful sub grouping of the Standing Committee of the CPK compromised Tou Samouth, Nuon Chea, and Pol Pot. As Pol Pot was a teacher, as was Ieng Sary, (as well as both their wives, who were sisters), they were limited to working from Phnom Penh. Nuon Chea was tasked with travelling to the countryside.
According to unpublished interviews I conducted on three separate occasions in January, February, and March 1998 with Nuon Chea, he said: “ We implemented the principle of absolute party leadership in accordance with the slogan: a protracted, difficult, hard struggle, self-reliance, self-mastery, independence…As for the party statutes, the principles of Marxist-Leninism were used and the principle of Democratic centralism. And the Party had to build from the countryside as the foundation and the towns as following behind.”
Nuon Chea’s reference to Marxist-Leninism as a guiding party principle was the sole reference I heard from any senior or other party figure of the CPK. These included extensive and repeated interviews with hundreds of Khmer Rouge senior political and military cadre, including every surviving member of the party leadership in research from the 1980’s to date. These included interviews with Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Ieng Thirith, Ta Mok, Son Sen, Ke Pok, and Khieu Samphan, the only surviving members of the CPK Central Committee after their internal purges and the end of their rule in power. Other research also included hundreds of interviews with other senior political cadre and military commanders who mostly had joined the movement in 1970 or the late 1960′s.
Each of the leaders had their origins as members of other political parties that formed and disintegrated in the 1940’s and 1950’s.
In 1962, the Secretary General of the CPK, Tou Samouth, was arrested while riding his bicycle to get medicine for his sick child in Phnom Penh and taken to the home of then Sihanouk security chief Lon Nol, and interrogated in an unsuccessful attempt to reveal the names of other CPK members, tortured and then executed. He had been betrayed by a government double agent, Siev Heng, who was a former Secretary general of the earlier Vietnamese dominated Communist Party–the Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Party (KPRP).
The KPRP had effectively dissolved after the 1954 signing of the Geneva Agreements which mandated the withdrawal of armed forces to Hanoi, and the 1953 bilateral agreement of Cambodian independence between France and Cambodia, which returned Cambodia to independence from Colonial French rule.
After Tou Samouth’s execution, another Party Congress was held in 1963, and Pol Pot was named Secretary General. While logically Nuon Chea was slated to be Secretary General, he was the nephew of the traitor Siev Heng, and deep suspicions of his loyalties—given the impossible to minimize influence of family loyalty in Cambodian culture—precluded him from assuming the top post of the CPK.
The 1963 Party Congress elected Pol Pot as Secretary General, Nuon Chea as Deputy Secretary, and Ieng Sary, Chong, Keu (Sophal), Vorn Vet, Ruoh Nhem (Muol Sambath), Ta Mok, Ma Mong, and Sao Phim to the Central Committee of the CPK. The highest ranking body, the Standing Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, was comprised of Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Sao Phim, and Ieng Sary. Of these ten, six were executed by the Khmer Rouge themselves in a series of purges once they obtained power.
Later in 1963, Prince Sihanouk, in his inimitable style, tauntingly announced that he would name 24 specific people as co-Prime Ministers of his government. They were the exact list of all 24 members of the central committee of CPK including Pol Pot, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Khieu Samphan, and three leftist CPK supporters who were then members of Parliament, Khieu Samphan, Hou Nim, and Hou Yuon. The decision was made that most named would have to flee the city and go underground to various jungle redoubts.
This splintered the party leadership undermining its ability at communicating with one another or central organization and implementation of a coherent national policy to be in place when they seized power in 1975. It resulted in the development of essentially autonomous regional fiefdoms without any effective central party leadership. This is central to explaining the confusion over the origins of the killings after 1975 when essentially six separate Khmer Rouge armies converged on Phnom Penh simultaneously. The struggle for consolidating leadership and consistent national policy cannot be overemphasized, as the political policies and ideological philosophies differed widely on the ground in the different Khmer Rouge regions throughout the country.
The leadership themselves had scarce communication or coordination with each other, with Pol Pot based in the far Northeastern province of Rattanakiri, Ta Mok based in the Southwest, Nuon Chea travelling from Phnom Penh to the countryside, and Sao Phim based on the Vietnamese border to the East.
It is instructive to note, in an analysis of the origins of the political influences of the ideology that drove the CPK policy, that the CPK didn’t fire a shot for 7 years after its founding in 1960. A spontaneous peasant uprising in 1967 in the remote Battambang district of Samlaut over abusive government tax collectors sparked the CPK to make a decision to react in support. On 17 January, 1968, the Khmer Rouge raided a police post in Samlaut, killed a handful of government soldiers, stole weapons, and fled into the jungle. It was the beginning of a nascent armed struggle that would bring Pol Pot and the CPK to power 7 years later.
And it is crucial to recognize that they chose to embark on this guerrilla war after directly rejecting the plea’s not to initiate an armed struggle by both the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist Party leadership, according to Pol Pot, Ieng Sary, Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan, and Ta Mok in independent interviews with each.
“The Chinese and the Yuon (Vietnamese) told us that ‘If you decide to fight, it is like fighting your own father,” Ta Mok told me in February 1998, referring to Sihanouk. “But we saw that if we didn’t use arms the movement would be finished. Therefore we decided that we had to mobilize the armed movement. And it wasn’t as if there was a proper leadership. The southwest was the southwest, the east was the east, enjoying independence-self-mastery.”
This stands as a stark early example of the CPK refusing to follow the leadership or strategy of the international communist movement, even from the countries key to their short term tactical survival.
Mok’s analysis that there was no central leadership of the Khmer Rouge forces contributes to explaining the later purges by Pol Pot and his loyalists of most of the other senior leadership of CPK after 1975.
Of the ten members of the CPK standing committee named in 1963, 6 were executed by Pol Pot after they took power in 1975 and before they were deposed in 1979.
In 1975, when the CPK seized power, they had never publicly announced that the CPK even existed, and it wasn’t until September 1977, more than two years after the seized power, that it was announced that the CPK was ruling Cambodia. Previously, they had publicly contended that a united front government of divergent political ideologies were running the government, naming a fictitious group of United Front personalities who held nearly zero internal influence in formulating State policy but represented a broad sector of well-known figures, including King Sihanouk. Sihanouk remained the public Head of State while in fact under strict house arrest.
In September 1977, the CPK held another Party Congress and named as their standing committee members, in order of rank, Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Sao Phim, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Ta Mok, Vorn Vet, and Nheum. Of those 8 members, 3 were executed during the Khmer Rouge reign in power—Sao Phim, Vorn Vet, and Nhuem. They also named 22 members to the central committee of the CPK. Of these, 18 were ordered executed by the time the Khmer Rouge were ousted from power in 1979.
Among the first to be purged was Hu Yuon, who as finance minister, objected to the abolishment of markets and the elimination of the use of currency. He was believed to have been executed in the months after the 1975 liberation of Phnom Penh.
Hun Nim, Minister of Information, was arrested and executed in 1977. It wasn’t the first time Hu Nim had been purged. In 1967, while a member of Parliament, Sihanouk publicly berated Nim as “a little hypocrite” whose “words carry the scent of honey, but hides his claws like a tiger”, and he “had the face of a Vietnamese or Chinese.” Sihanouk added Hu Nim would be “subjected to the military tribunal and the execution block”. He promptly fled to the Khmer Rouge controlled jungles. After Sihanouk was overthrown in 1970, and he himself joined in alliance with the Khmer Rouge, he called Hu Nim “one of our greatest intellectuals.
Hu Nim served as Minister of Information for the Khmer Rouge until arrested and tortured and executed in Tuol Sleng in 1977. In a handwritten Tuol Sleng confession of 28 May, 1977 he wrote: “I have nothing to depend on, only the Communist Party of Kampuchea. Would the Party please show clemency towards me?” He also wrote “I am not a human being, I am an animal.”
“You say the enemy was trying to assassinate you, but most of your central committee was executed in Tuol Sleng before your years in power were finished, “ I asked Pol Pot, during an interview in October 1997, the only public sighting or comments he made after he was driven from power in January 1979. “Did they deserve to die, or was it a mistake?”
“You raise this question, but let me clarify this. These people were in the central leadership of Democratic Kampuchea, but they were not the people of Democratic Kampuchea,” Pol Pot responded. “In 1976 and 1977, that group of people you were talking about set up a coup d’état committee, especially against me. In that committee there were Vietnamese agents in the majority.”
“And among the leadership, they included whom?” I asked.
“My memory does not serve me well on that,” he answered rather incredulously, unable to remember the names of his top comrades he had ordered executed. He paused for about 30 seconds and then exclaimed, pointed his finger at me and fixed his gaze on my eyes, “but among those who were in the coup committee were Ya. He was a Vietnamese agent since 1946.”
Ya, alias Maen San was the zone secretary for the northeast appointed in January 1976, the same month he was arrested. He was also a member of the Standing Committee of the CPK.
The confession of Ya is particularly chilling. In an S-21 (Tuol Sleng ) document dated January 10, 1976, the Khmer Rouge chief executioner, Duch, wrote a note to Ya’s interrogator that “I reported to Angkar ( a reference used either for Pol pot or Nuon Chea. However Duch said he reported only to Son Sen and Nuon Chea and never directly spoke to Pol Pot until 1988) at ten minutes to nine on the case of Ya based on the documents that comrade (you) provided…Angkar says that in the case that Ya remains reluctant and continues to hide his traitorous connections and activities, Angkar has decided to have him killed…Angkar has decided it is a case of having him looking down on the Party, not just down on our state security. Therefore for Ya, you can use the hot measures and for a long time. Even if those measures led to his death, comrade will not be wrongful toward Angkar’s discipline.” Duch signed off with “warm revolutionary fraternity.”
Pon, S-21’s top interrogator, added a note to the document in handwriting designated to be read by Ya. “Brother Ya, read this and think it through thoroughly.” The document was then given back to Ya.
Included among those executed were many top leaders of the Communist Party of Kampuchea named in power in 1975. They included Ya, Vorn Vet (ranked #7), Ruo Nheum alias Muol Sambat, Chou Chet alias Thang Si, Sao Phim, Koy Thuon, alias Thuoch (ranked #5), Chey Suon alias Non Suon (ranked #11) and Ruos Nhim. All were members of the Standing Committee of the Party. Among the Central Committee members of the CPK who were arrested tortured and executed included Pang alias Chheum sak-aok alias Seuang, Chan, Pin, Reran alias So Sarouen, Mon, Meah Tal alias Sam Huoy, Nat alias Im Long, Koe alias Kung Sophal alias Kan, Phuong, and Chong, who was Ta Mok’s chief deputy and an ethnic Thai from Koh Kong province whose real name was Prasith.
An October 30, 1976 party document entitled “Decision of the Central Committee on a Number of Problems: the Right to decide on extermination within and outside the ranks” named the following; All 6 zone heads, the 22 members of the central Committee of the CPK, the Standing Committee of the CPK, and the top leaders of the Armed Forces.
Many of these same leaders would also be arrested and executed at the instruction of other members of these bodies in the period between 1975 and 1979..
In 1999 interviews I conducted with Duch, the head of S-21 (Tuol Sleng), the primary internal security service responsible for arrests and executions, he blamed the genesis of the killings on Pol Pot’s 1973 decision to have all leaders come from the peasantry, eliminating educated cadre from positions of influence.
“ At that time many things changed, and many people were killed. After liberation in 1975, Pol Pot said ‘We must protect our country by finding enemies within the ranks of the party. We are not strong enough to attack enemies from the outside, so we must destroy them from within.’ First we arrested the people from the North, then the Southwest, then the Northwest, then the East. He used Nuon Chea to do the work. Pol Pot never directly ordered the killings. Nuon Chea was always cruel and pompous. He never explained to the cadre. He only ordered them. For arresting people, it was the everyday job of Nuon Chea and Son Sen. Pol Pot knew about S-21, but did not direct it personally. He left that job to Nuon Chea as number 2 in the Party and Son Sen as head of the Army and Police,” Duch said.
“They arrested nearly everyone by the end…it is a permanent rule,” said Duch. “Whoever is arrested must be killed.”
In May 1978, Sao Phim, a top Standing Committee member and head of the Eastern Zone under Khmer Rouge rule, was ordered arrested and killed at a secret meeting of select top party leaders. In more than two weeks of recorded interviews, totaling 40 hours, with Duch while he was in the jungle living clandestinely under an assumed name immediately prior to his arrest, the commandant of the Khmer Rouge security service S-21, the killing machine of the regime, the man who actually personally carried out the orders to arrest, interrogate and execute that came from the top political leadership, he said: “It was brother number one (Pol Pot) who decided that Sao Phim would die…a very secret meeting was held—Pol Pot ordered it. Khieu Samphan was there—He was the note taker. Three men and especially one man ordered it. Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and Son Sen were at the meeting–not Ieng Sary or Vorn Vet.”
By late 1978, another sweeping purge was starting to crest. Among high ranking victims was Vorn Vet, a Party Standing Committee member who was also the deputy premier in charge of the economy. He was a long time protégé of Pol Pot, who had personally inducted Vorn Vet into the Communist Party of Kampuchea. In his “confessions” under torture, Vorn Vet discussed his opposition to Pol Pot’s purges, which in turn was used as proof that was a traitor and enemy agent.
When the Vietnamese invaded in late 1978, documents found at Tuol Sleng revealed that another two senior leaders were also targeted for arrest and liquidation. One was long time Pol Pot associate and comrade, Son Sen, the Deputy premier in charge of National Defence, Chairman of the Armed forces general Staff, and Standing Committee member. In practice, Son Sen was head of the entire Khmer Rouge Military and Security Services, including the secret police and execution and torture apparatus, during their years in power. As such, he was, along with Nuon Chea, the CPK party representative that was the link between the political leadership and the killing machine itself. He was in fact the direct supervisor of the S-21 torture and execution center and the man to whom S-21 commandant Duch reported directly, alongside Nuon Chea. In Mid-1978, Son Sen was dispatched to command the troops fighting the escalating war with the Vietnamese on the eastern front, and relinquished his duties as S-21 liaison with the Party leadership to Nuon Chea. With the war going badly against Vietnam, the CPK leadership blamed not the superior military strength, troop numbers, battlefield experience, and superior firepower and morale of the Vietnamese, but Son Sen as an enemy agent because it was unfathomable that the CPK’s strategy was untenable in itself. With that logic used, it had to be purposeful sabotage of “enemies from within” that was responsible for the war not succeeding.
Another target for execution found in the files of S-21 from the last days before the Vietnamese overran Phnom Penh, showed that Ke Pok, Party Secretary and commander of the Central zone, also a member of the Standing Committee, was also targeted for arrest and execution. Ironically both Ke Pok and Son Sen were saved by the Vietnamese invasion before their arrests could be carried out.
The remaining five in the years after, all turned against each other.
Ieng Sary broke with Pol Pot in 1996 calling him a “dictator worse than Hitler” and sentencing him to death.
Pol Pot and Ta Mok announced that Ieng Sary was a “Vietnamese agent” and in turn sentenced him to death.
The irony that both Pol Pot and Ieng Sary had been sentenced to death, together, as the “Pol Pot-Ieng Sary clique” in a 1979 political show trial by the ex-Khmer Rouge installed by the Vietnamese invasion as the new Cambodian leaders, went largely unnoticed.
Pol Pot ordered the arrest of Nuon Chea, Son Sen and Ta Mok in November 1996, blaming them for the defection of Ieng Sary. He later, in June 1997, ordered the execution of Son Sen and Ta Mok, succeeding in killing Son Sen.
Khieu Samphan went on the clandestine jungle radio controlled by Pol Pot on June 10, 1997, calling Son Sen a “traitor and Vietnamese agent.” Ta Mok fought back and captured Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan, and Nuon Chea.
Days after the execution of Son Sen, Khieu Samphan went back on the radio—this time on behalf of Ta Mok—referring to Son Sen as “comrade” and announcing that “Pol Pot” was under arrest as a “traitor.”
During several interviews in the Khmer Rouge controlled jungles with Khieu Samphan from October 1997 through1998, I asked if he was a hostage of Pol Pot during the internal fighting, he said: “You could call it something like that.”
So in the end, all ten of the original members of the 1963 Standing Committee of the CPK had been arrested, murdered, or sentenced to death by each other as “traitors.”
In fact by the end of Pol Pot’s rule in 1979, of the 22 members of the central committee of the CPK that were named in 1975 when they seized power, 18 had been executed or named to be executed as ‘enemy agents” covertly plotting from within the CPK ranks.
Many cadres who fled to Vietnam in 1977 and 1978, including current premier Hun Sen, ruling party president Chea Sim, the titular head of the original Vietnamese installed government Heng Samrin, Interior Minister Sar Kheng, and Defence Minister Tea Banh fled in 1977 and 1978. Many were loyal officers who remained in power with the Khmer Rouge while hundreds of thousands died at the hands of the government they were still loyal to, well after the disastrous policies and purges were implemented. They left the Khmer Rouge, not because of objection to Pol Pot’s policies, but rather because they were aware they were next on the list of targets.
During the massive purge of mid 1978 against “internal enemies” in the Party, the Khmer Rouge publicly announced that they were not just preparing for war against Vietnam, but the extermination of the entire Vietnamese race and the military re-capture of territory on the Mekong Delta that had been lost centuries before.
The Khmer Rouge strategy was clearly tactically, strategically and psychologically delusional. But they were no doubt serious.
They announced on State radio that Cambodia, with a population of 8 million, would eliminate the entire Vietnamese population of battle hardened 60 million, and explained their crude strategy. The May 10, 1978 Khmer Rouge radio proclaimed in a public broadcast. “ The party has instructed that we destroy as many of the enemy as possible, and try to preserve our forces to the maximum. We are few in number, but we have to attack a larger force. This is our slogan: In terms of numbers, one of us must kill 30 Vietnamese. If we can implement this slogan, we surely can win. Using these figures, one Cambodian is equal to thirty Vietnamese. And 100 Cambodians are equal to 3000 Vietnamese. We should have 2 million troops for 60 million Vietnamese. We don’t have to engage 8 million people. We need only 2 million to crush the 60 million Vietnamese, and we would still have 6 million left We must format our combat line in this manner in order to win victory. The entire army, party, and people must be made fully aware of these views, lines, and stands. We must review our history. Have the Vietnamese succeeded in swallowing Cambodia? No, they have not. We must purify our armed forces, our Party, and the masses of people in order to continue fighting the enemy in defence of Cambodian territory and the Cambodian race. If we do not try and defend our territory, then we shall lose it, and then our race will disappear. The Vietnamese will bring in one or two million people into Cambodia every year, and then we will lose our territory, and our race will be completely swallowed up.”
This official Khmer Rouge strategy was not a secret later unearthed from an internal party document. It was broadcast on their radio for both internal and foreign consumption in 1978 in their final months in power. Their military and political formula was patently delusional, and based on no remotely viable military strategy. It was simply ludicrous.
The “victory” was that the Khmer race would remain, in theory, with 6 million alive, ancient Khmer territory lost centuries ago would be re-conquered, and current territory would be saved from fictional, delusional, non-existent, foreign plots of foreign designs of annexation rooted in age old historical grievances.
It was nothing less than the manifestations of delusions of grandeur, still oozing the puss of the deep humiliation, resentment, and fixation for vengeance for the defeats now ancient history, seared into the minds of the popular Cambodian consciousness, harking back 800 years to the still forever at the forefront of contemporary political agenda of the Great Angkor Empire, which had evaporated by the 14th century.
This deep sense of racial and cultural insecurity, a national psychological disorder of a shared racial and cultural inferiority complex combined with a shocking national acceptance of the need to exact eventual revenge and a deep sense of humiliation, preceded the Khmer Rouge and remains at the very core of mainstream political and psychological culture. But when mixed with Stalinist style internal political power structures under Pol Pot, the inevitability of an implosion into an orgy of unspeakable violence and collapse seems retrospectively both logical and predictable.
Pol Pot’s other major internal central policy focused singularly on the rapid creation of a patently untenable rise in agricultural production. He based his goals on the superior racial abilities of the Khmer peasants. He set unachievable quotas for rice production that were guaranteed to fail.
He was obsessed with an ability to create a superior agrarian utopia based on self-reliance on Khmer resources, which largely didn’t exist. Pol Pot’s domestic policies of agricultural production goals, the regional production of rice quotas mandated by the central party, were simply unattainable, guaranteed to fail, and a queer mixture of delusion, incompetence and a stark false sense of self grandeur.
Cambodia’s mechanized resources were simply non-existent, its agricultural productive capacity and infrastructure decimated by 5 years of warfare when Pol Pot came to power, and its trained human resources and technically skilled cadre with even minimum expertise minuscule in number and capability. In addition, anyone with foreign training and the skills, who returned from abroad upon victory to build a new society, were deemed suspected spies and most were killed. In addition, local and regional cadre who questioned the ability to meet the quotas were deemed foreign enemy agents intent on sabotaging the revolution and arrested and executed.
“They fought against us, so we had to take measure to defend ourselves,’ Pol Pot told me in 1997, blaming “enemies from within” for sabotaging the regimes’ policy goals. He blamed starvation that killed hundreds of thousands on “enemies within our ranks” who “withheld food from the people. There was rice but they didn’t give rice to the population to eat.”
The list of enemies ranged from officials of the defeated Lon Nol regime, to “internal agents” within the Party and the army, to Vietnamese, CIA, and KGB plots, often working simultaneously in coordination with one another, to his contention of six attempted coup attempts to depose assassinate and him, to finally the entire nation and race of Vietnam.
In 1977, Khieu Samphan stressed the rejection of foreign aid as a “science.”
“In the old regime did the school children, college children, university graduates know anything about the true natural sciences? Could they tell the difference between an early crop and a six month rice crop…they relied completely on foreigners, expecting foreign equipment and even foreign experts to do their job for them. Everything was done according to foreign books and foreign standards. Therefore, it was useless and could not serve the needs of our people, nor could it be of any help building our nation. By contrast, our children in rural regions have always had useful knowledge. They can tell you which cow is tame and which cow is skittish. They can mount a buffalo from both sides. They are masters of the herd. They have practically mastered nature. Only this should be called natural science because this type of knowledge is closely connected with the realities of the nation, with the ideas of nationalism, national construction, and national defense.”
In its place the Khmer Rouge mandated thousands of underfed and overworked forced labour to build poorly designed water irrigation systems, planting and harvesting at a pace that resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands from sheer overwork and exhaustion. The nationwide system of irrigation and water canals was designed with the help of North Korean engineers and can be clearly seen criss-crossing the entire country from space satellites. None of the irrigation canals or dams work today, a colossal failure in clueless technology . untrained expertise and delusional visions of racial grandeur that cost hundreds of thousands of lives, starved and worked to death, forced to hand build the absurd scheme.
The ban on the use of money was also a direct consequence of the CPK hyper focus on foreign enemies trying to destroy Cambodia. “Pol Pot was convinced that only the ban of the use of money could prevent the CIA from carrying out any activity in Cambodia because in his view the CIA used money to buy people and recruit agents,” said CPK Standing Committee member and Pol Pot’s brother in law Ieng Sary after he defected in 1996.” He boasted that if we used money, his regime would not have lasted three months and so far no other country could do the same.”
In July, 1976, the Khmer Rouge embarked on a Four Year Plan in all Fields, 1977-1980.” The document acknowledged “we are extremely weak” in industry and technology, but said “technology is not the decisive factor; the determining factors of the revolution are politics, revolutionary people, and revolutionary methods.” It also rejected accepting foreign assistance saying “we would certainly obtain some, but this would affect our political line…there would be political conditions imposed on us without fail.” The document concluded that Cambodia “had leaped over the feudalists and capitalists of every nation, and have achieved a socialist state right away.” They even said they had out achieved North Korea, China, and North Vietnam, saying “ we are faster than them…nothing is confused as it is with them…we don’t need a long time for the transformation.”
But while modern Cambodia bears no political or geographical resemblance to the ancient political and military and cultural antecedents of the Angkor period, the Angkor empire is crucial to understanding the motives and psychology of Pol Pot and, indeed, the modern Cambodian society that created the Khmer Rouge rise to power, and to a significant degree the political culture that succeeded it and remains dominant today.
Pol Pot’s political contemporaries almost all shifted allegiance in recent decades to serving alternately as military and political allies and adversaries to the Khmer Rouge. Sharing many similar objectives and characteristics, the political leaders succeeding and preceding Pol Pot in power, comprise a consistent modern political culture remarkably still dominated by the same cast of characters from French independence in 1953 to the present. They together share key responsibility to the disaster wrought by the Khmer Rouge and their short tenure in power.
But it reelected the sincere belief of Khmer racial and cultural and political prowess that was superior to all other nations and theories in history and this belief was carried out in all sectors of government policy.
A look at the backgrounds and statements of the leaders of the CPK provides little substantiation of the theory that their murderous policies were inspired by any allegiance to communism, but rather points instead to its roots in traditional Cambodian political themes of nationalism, anti-colonialism, vitriolic abhorrence to foreign domination, sovereignty, retaking territory lost in past centuries to neighboring powers, racial superiority of Khmers and racial hatred for foreigners, particularly Vietnamese.
In detailed personal interviews with every living member of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, only once did I ever hear a reference to Communism as an influence in their ideological development
The leadership of the Khmer Rouge was a disparate grouping of individuals with few shared teachings, backgrounds, ideology, or unified vision.
Pol Pot was a failed radio technician student from a rural middle class background influenced by anti-colonialist and nationalist movements who dabbled in leftist politics while a student in France and was inducted into the French Communist Party. Upon his return to Cambodia in the early 1950’s, after failing out of his radio technical school, he was inducted into the predecessor to the CPK, the Indochinese Communist Party, by the Vietnamese, who held firm control over the communist movement in the three Indochinese countries at the time. Before joining the original formation of the CPK in 1960, he taught school and wrote articles under pseudonyms signed “The Original Khmer” and the “The nation, the People, and the Race.” The latter was the same pseudonym he used to sign his radio broadcasts from the jungles in the 1980’s and 90’s, after being deposed from power.
In 1997, when I asked Pol Pot about his political influences and what drove his policies during his reign, he said: “I would like to say that my conscious is clear. Everything I have done is for the nation the people and the race of Cambodia. I want to tell you, I am quite satisfied with one thing: If there was no struggle carried out by us, Cambodia would have been Kampuchea Krom (a reference to areas of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam which were annexed by Vietnam in the 1700’s) in 1975.”
“ During 1975-78 there were of course some conflicting views, this is true,” he said, obliquely avoiding my questions of mass murder under his rule. “There was opposition to Democratic Kampuchea, and, of course, Democratic Kampuchea had to do something about that. The Vietnamese carried out activities for some time. Naturally we had to defend ourselves. They wanted to kill me.”
“Who is they?” I asked.
“Mainly the Vietnamese. They knew without me they could easily swallow up Cambodia.”
Pol Pot saw himself literally as the personal embodiment of the Cambodian nation. Any opposition to him was interpreted as treason against the Khmer race and Cambodian nation itself, by definition. This fealty to a single infallible God King like ruler, who demands unquestioned, obsequious loyalty, has been the dominant characteristic of Cambodian organization of government power for 800 years, both historically and immediately preceding Pol Pot’s rise to power and the dominant feature of his successor, the ex-Khmer Rouge officer, the dictator Hun Sen, who has held power since Pol Pot was forced back to the jungle in 1979.
Pol Pot, the ugly truth remains, is very not only Khmer, but fits comfortably in mainstream contemporary Cambodian political culture, sharing dominant core traits with his ostensible contemporary adversaries.